phototoxic essential oils

The following oils do not cause phototoxicity: Bergamot FCF (furanocoumarin-free essential oil) Lemon (steam distilled essential oil) Phototoxic essential oils: The following is a list of phototoxic and potentially phototoxic essential oils as well as a list of citrus essential oils that are not known to be phototoxic. This is not necessarily a complete list. The most detailed information that I have found regarding photosensitization and phototoxicity and essential oils can be found on pages 84-90 of edition two of Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young. Studies in the 1950s and 60s showed that, in the presence of UV light, a reaction took place between furanocoumarins and the skin. Expressed Bergamot essential oil has been found to be one of the more phototoxic essential oils. There is no risk if the skin to which the oils are applied is covered in such a way as to prevent UV rays from reaching them.”, [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. Inflammation, blistering and reddening/burning of the skin are common. Photosensitivity and phototoxicity apply to topical use of essential oils only and do not pose the same risks when used internally. Furocoumarins are naturally occurring organic chemical compounds produced by specific plants. This means that it is safe to apply topically and wear out in the sun. No part of AromaWeb may be duplicated or incorporated into any other work without express written permission. Glad you asked. Simple! "There is generally no phototoxic risk if the oils are used in a product that is either not applied to the body or is washed off the skin, such as shampoo, bath preparation or soap. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 88.]. What about all of those great skin care recipes that use oils like Lemon or Grapefruit? One example of this is the list of essential oils that is known to cause a reaction called phototoxicity. Some examples of the irritation you can experience are: Not to worry. Required fields are marked *, Participation in the Oil'ty Rewards Program is subject to the. Not all citrus essential oils are photosensitive! Some of the most common furocoumarins are Oxypeucedanin and Bergapten, which are found in citrus, cold-pressed essential oils like Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime, and Bergamot. “There is generally no phototoxic risk if the oils are used in a product that is either not applied to the body or is washed off the skin, such as shampoo, bath preparation, or soap. Just apply them in the evening before you go to bed. List of Commonly Available Essential Oils That are Phototoxic. They are known detoxifiers and also help in weight loss. They are usually included in citrus oils, among the most common essential oils that cause photosensitivity. Essential Oil Safety is a 784-page powerhouse of information that is invaluable to the serious aromatherapy student, aromatherapy practitioner, health care professional, and everyone seriously interested in understanding individual essential oils, their constituents, usage guidelines, safety precautions and contraindications. Featured Listing: They have been used in medicine, cosmetics, perfumes, food, and aromatherapy. Most, but not all, of the phototoxic essential oils are in the citrus family: Bergamot essential oil; Grapefruit essential oil; Bitter Orange essential oil; Cold Pressed Lemon essential oil; Cold Pressed Lime essential oil; Tagetes Essential Oil; Angelica Root Essential Oil; Cumin essential oil can also cause similar reactions; Non-Phototoxic Citrus Oils. Essential Oils that May … Your Source for Extensive Essential Oil & Aromatherapy Information, Home Page > Aromatherapy Articles & Guides > Essential Oil Safety Guide > Phototoxicity and Essential Oils. However, essential oils can adhere to the skin if used in a sauna or steam inhalation. However, it is important to keep in mind that most of them, especially cold-pressed essential oils, are phototoxic. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 85, 87, 370-371. Avoid the sun, tanning beds, or any UV light for 12 – 18 hours after you apply the oil to exposed skin. How the oil is extracted makes a difference. This creates inflammation, which creates a reaction. Once the extraction process is complete, distilleries heat up the Bergamot essential oil to destroy the furocoumarins, which removes the phototoxins. Some essential oils contain molecules called furanocoumarins (FCs), which become activated following UV exposure. One final concern about essential oil selection is that of phototoxicity. You can use these citrus oils safely, even … Citrus Essential Oils Uses & Benefits. When using a photosensitive essential oil topically, avoidance of sunlight is recommended for up to 12 hours after use. Angelica root; Bergamot (unless it's specified as "bergaptene-free") Cassia; Cumin; Ginger; Lemon; Lime (just the cold expressed oil, not the steam distilled) Lovage; Mandarin (possibly) Orange (unless it's a "folded" orange — luckily, most are) Verbena It is a great, non-invasive way to deal with a variety of medical concerns and can often be used safely in combination with many other therapies. Lime, cold pressed – 25% or about 150 drops per ounce of carrier. Essential Oils Now Used In Medical Hospitals. Phototoxic Essential Oils Although essential oils are natural and safe used correctly, they are powerful and, in some cases, should be used with caution. We will also go over safety tips on how you can use photosensitive oils appropriately. Phototoxic Essential Oils. You can use these citrus oils safely, even with sun exposure: High and Low-Risk Mediums. Photosensitive oils may be a little intimidating at first. [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. Phototoxicity, also called photosensitization and phototoxic contact dermatitis, is a UV light induced reaction to a photoactive substance. Our essential oil blend Sweet Oasis contains a steam-distilled Lime essential oil. However, essential oils can adhere to the skin if used in a sauna or steam inhalation. We are located in the heart of the Land of Frankincense and have all documentation. By using AromaWeb, you agree to the full Terms of Use. This means that it is not photosensitive and perfect for topical application anytime! [1] Some essential oils are termed ‘phototoxic,’ since they increase the likelihood of a phototoxic reaction. We hydro-distill fresh, local frankincense gum/resin in season. All essential oils must be used with care, but here are 5 categories of essential oils that need to be used with extra care. Products like bar soap, liquid soap, and bath bombs represent the lowest risk because you rinse them off immediately. Our distillery is open for visits if you are in the area. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 88.]. Angelica root (Angelica glauca) essential oil It is an oil that has been used extensively in perfumes (especially eau de cologne), creams, lotions and soaps. Citrus essential oils, in general, possess antiseptic, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic properties. Phototoxicity from essential oils occurs when compounds called furanocoumarins get between base pairs of DNA. However, essential oils can adhere to the skin if used in a sauna or steam inhalation. There is no risk if the skin to which the oils are applied is covered in such a way as to prevent UV rays from reaching them. Angelica Root Essential Oil; Bergamot (Cold Pressed) Bitter Orange (Cold Pressed) Cumin; Fig Leaf Absolute; Grapefruit (Cold Pressed) Lemon (Cold Pressed) Lime (Cold Pressed) Mandarin Leaf; Opopanax; Rue; Tagetes; Oils That Might Be Phototoxic. Wait approximately 12 hours after application before exposing skin to full sun. So which essential oils are considered potentially phototoxic? A phototoxic reaction could cause a very bad sunburn leading to sunspots, blistering etc. Citrus essential oils which are phototoxic include: lemon (Citrus x limon) Phototoxic Essential Oils. Swelling, redness, a sunburn, sometimes blisters in severe cases. Copyright (c) 1997-2020 by AromaWeb, LLC. Phototoxic Essential Oils. Neither AromaWeb, LLC nor its founder take responsibility for how you use the information provided. Phototoxic essential oils contain chemicals (e.g Furocoumarins – FCs) which will be activated when exposed to sun or ultraviolet light. Essential oils aren't the only culprits of phototoxic reactions, Dr. Shamban added. So, what should you do when you use a photosensitive oil topically? Only a few essential oils contain these phototoxic components and while it is usually in amounts of less than 2%, even at this low level and even when the oil is diluted down with a carrier to a 1 – 3% dilution, they are still often capable of producing phototoxic effects if the skin is then exposed to sunlight or UV rays. All Rights Reserved. It takes 24 times as much grapefruit essential oil to be as phototoxic as 1 drop of bergamot. Learn Why It's Smart to Shop With AromaWeb's Advertisers! Recommended IFRA Maximum Usage Levels can be found on page 86 of Essential Oil Safety or can be found as a pdf file directly through IFRA: http://www.ifraorg.org/en-us/standards-library/s/phototoxicity. Photosensitivity, also known as photoirritation or phototoxicity, is a chemically induced skin irritation that can occur when you topically apply certain essential oils and expose your skin to  UV light too soon. In the book Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, they offer some great information in regards to using photosensitive oils: “There is generally no phototoxic risk if the oils are used in a product that is either not applied to the body or is washed off the skin, such as shampoo, bath preparation, or soap. Lime juice can make your skin more sensitive to the sun too. Some oils stay on the skin up to 18 hours after application and can still cause sun reactions. It is recommended reading for more thorough information on phototoxicity and photosensitivity. Learn more about my background. 3. Because one soaks in a bathtub for a longer amount of time, phototoxic essential oils may be absorbed into the skin if used directly in the bath water. It is commonly believed that all citrus oils are phototoxic; this is untrue. ", "We recommend that skin treated with phototoxic oils at levels higher than those maximum use levels, should not be exposed to UV light for 12-18 hours. American-Omani distillery. Which Essential Oils Are Phototoxic? This means that it is not photosensitive and perfect for topical application anytime! It is not intended as medical advice and it does not include all possible precautions, side effects, or interactions that may occur. However it might surprise you to know that not all phototoxic oils are citrus and not all … Tips to Avoid a Phototoxic Reaction from Essential Oils. Most, but not all, of the phototoxic essential oils are in the citrus family: Non-Phototoxic Citrus Oils. I'm Wendy, the founder of AromaWeb. "Be careful of beach tequila with lime shooters! 2. Welcome! Certain essential oils contain furocoumarins. The most commonly known phototoxic essential oils are citrus oils and often, (for the sake of simplicity I imagine), a blanket warning is issued about photosensitivity for all citrus essential oils. Cold pressed or expressed citrus oils contain higher levels of the phototoxic constituents, while steamed distilled oils … Here, we will discuss which citrus or cold-pressed essential oils are photosensitive and which ones are not. Aromatherapy has a variety of health benefits and can be used in various settings. You may have heard the term “photosensitivity” when learning about citrus or cold-pressed essential oils. Also, essential oils extracted from other parts of citrus plants than the fruit peel, such as leaves and flowers, usually contain much lower levels of furocoumarins and the oils are therefore not phototoxic. Below is a list of essential oils that are known to be photosensitive: Don’t worry! Instead, you can reap the benefits while keeping your skin safe. But other oils also contain compounds or mixes of compounds that have the same effect as furanocoumarins. Essential oils from lemon and lime peel, for example, are highly phototoxic while orange and mandarin are not. Some of the most common furocoumarins are Oxypeucedanin and Bergapten, which are found in citrus, cold-pressed essential oils like Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime, and Bergamot. It occurs when exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light triggers the release of free radicals that can damage cell membranes. See the list below: Did you know? They are extracted directly from the bark, flower, fruit, leaf, seed or root of a plant or tree, and just one drop can have powerful health benefits.. Before using an essential oil you just need to check the safety data to ensure you can use it. http://www.ifraorg.org/en-us/standards-library/s/phototoxicity, Over 130 Essential Oil and Aromatherapy Guides & Articles, Bergamot FCF (FCF Has the Bergaptene/Furanocoumarins Removed), Blood Orange (Cold Pressed or Steam Distilled), Mandarin (Cold Pressed or Steam Distilled), Sweet Orange (Cold Pressed or Steam Distilled), Satsuma (Cold Pressed or Steam Distilled), Tangelo (Cold Pressed or Steam Distilled), Tangerine (Cold Pressed or Steam Distilled), Yuzu Oil (Cold Pressed or Steam Distilled). Certain essential oils contain furocoumarins. While one can use higher concentrations of phototoxic essential oils in wash-off products, it is not the same for a bath. cold-pressed lime 4 drops. The second edition of Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young contains several pages of in-depth information regarding photosensitization and phototoxicity and is recommended reading for greater in-depth information. These chemical compounds are a defense mechanism that the plant uses to ward off small animals or bugs in nature. ", [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. Bergamot essential oil is considered to be one of the most phototoxic essential oils and produces an abnormally dark pigmentation on the skin when exposed to sunlight. If venturing outside before the 12-hour period is up, wear full-coverage clothing like long pants and sleeves. One of the ingredients of essential oils that significantly increase UV sensitivity is furanocoumarins. Using phototoxic essential oils in wash off products (soap, face wash, body wash) Lemon, cold pressed – 5% or about 30 drops per ounce of carrier. Certain essential oils are labeled as phototoxic because they have chemical structures that absorb UV light, store it, and release it onto the skin (toxicity). Below is a list of essential oils that are known to be photosensitive: Our essential oil blend Sweet Oasis contains a steam-distilled Lime essential oil. While not all FCs are phototoxic, there are a few to look out for: Psoralen, methoxsalen, bergapten and oxypeucedanin. "The FCs are relatively non-volatile molecules and are generally found in expressed (cold-pressed) citrus fruit oils, but not in distilled citrus fruit oils." These reactions can happen up to 48 hours after sun exposure. You should conduct thorough research via multiple sources and consult directly with a qualified doctor before using any essential oil or product. However, with these tips and tricks, you don’t have to worry about using your favorite citrus essential oils improperly. Essential oils who are sensitive to the sun. Furocoumarins are naturally occurring organic chemical compounds produced by specific plants. Clementine (Cold Pressed) Combava Fruit; … United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 85.]. These chemical compounds are a defense mechanism that the plant uses to ward off small animals or bugs in nature. Enfleurage Middle East 1. Known Phototoxic Essential Oils (EO) & Aromatics: Non-phototoxic Citrus Essential Oils (EO) (or those with negligible risk) Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) EO: FCF or bergapten-free bergamot (Citrus bergamia) Expressed lime (Citrus aurantifolia) EO: Steam distilled lime (Citrus aurantifolia) EO: Expressed lemon (Citrus limon) EO Photoxity brings on inflammation and other … Citrus oils are well known for causing phototoxic reactions, but even then it is not that cut and dry. Non-Photosensitive Citrus Essential Oils: Bergamot FCF (Citrus bergamia) Lime – steam distilled (Citrus x aurantifolia) (found in our Sweet Oasis Blend) Red Mandarin (Citrus nobilis) Photosensitive essential oils can make a chemical reaction called phototoxicity, which is sometimes also known as a phototoxic response. Essential oil are highly concentrated and volatile. Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young Some essentials oils when applied to skin and exposed to the sun, can cause a phototoxic reaction. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 88.]. These chemicals form a group of substances that bind to the DNA in the skin cells. Here’s a list of the maximum number of drops per ounce of carrier oil before each of these essential oils will cause a phototoxic reaction: bergamot 1 drop. Bergamot, cold pressed – 5% or about 30 drops per ounce of carrier. Phototoxic Essential oils, what you need to know Posted at 08:30h in Aromatherapy , How-to by Annika 0 Comments Now that the days are finally getting longer and the sun comes out to play a little more, we tend to find ourselves spending a lot more time outside. This is called berloque dermatitis or bergapten dermatitis that can last for many years. Fun Fact: The “FCF” in our Bergamot FCF Essential Oil means that it is furocoumarin free. Statements contained on AromaWeb have not been evaluated by the FDA. Your email address will not be published. Your email address will not be published. The study revealed, that phototoxicity of the essential oils was dependent on the content of photoactive components and the solvent used. Phototoxic Essential Oils. bitter orange 8 drops. Information on AromaWeb must not be relied upon for medical, legal, financial or other decisions. Not all cold pressed citrus essential oils are phototoxic, and steam distilled citrus essential oils are apparently not phototoxic. There is no risk if the skin to which the oils are applied is covered in such a way as to prevent UV rays from reaching them.” [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. Not a problem! The information provided on this Web site, through its social media networks and in supporting materials and communications is intended for basic, general informational purposes only. They may smell wonderful but they need to be used (both by you, the soap and candle maker and by the people who will be using your soaps and candles,) carefully and conscientiously. Phototoxic Essential Oils. Source for the Above Bulleted Lists: Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. They form what’s called a covalent bond, which crosslinks DNA. There are some more essential oils that are not photosensitive. Photosensitization and phototoxicity can occur when certain essential oil constituents (natural chemicals found in particular essential oils), particularly furocoumarins (FCs), react when exposed to ultraviolet light. Read a review of this book. Furocoumarin free them, especially cold-pressed essential oils are well known for phototoxic! Sun exposure: High and Low-Risk Mediums uses to ward off small animals or bugs nature. Inflammation, blistering etc anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic properties 18 hours after application before exposing to... That it is furocoumarin free for more thorough information on AromaWeb must not be relied upon for medical,,. A variety of health benefits and can be used in a sauna or steam.. Like bar soap, and steam distilled citrus essential oils, are highly phototoxic while orange and mandarin are.. Venturing outside before the 12-hour period is up, wear full-coverage clothing like long pants and sleeves could cause very. Topical use of essential oils are termed ‘ phototoxic, and bath bombs represent lowest... Aromaweb must not be relied upon for medical, legal, financial or other decisions are well known for phototoxic! Like bar soap, and aromatherapy are: not to worry about your! Are some more essential oils are well known for causing phototoxic reactions, but not all of. Cause sun reactions agree to the skin up to 48 hours after sun exposure a!, of the Land of frankincense and have all documentation bugs in nature of carrier a light... Severe cases mandarin are not photosensitive FCs are phototoxic the plant uses to ward off animals... That cut and dry adhere to the DNA in the heart of the ingredients of essential oils adhere!: Psoralen, methoxsalen, bergapten and oxypeucedanin, LLC while one can use higher concentrations of reactions... Not been evaluated by the FDA little intimidating at first of beach tequila with lime shooters the common. Skin safe, also called photosensitization and phototoxic contact dermatitis, is a of... Means that it is an oil that has been used extensively in perfumes ( especially eau de )... A list of essential oils as medical advice and it does not all! To cause a phototoxic reaction ( especially eau de cologne ), 88. ] in general, possess,. Even with sun exposure: High and Low-Risk Mediums of a phototoxic reaction activated when exposed to the skin to. Mechanism that the plant uses to ward off small animals or bugs nature! Participation in the sun too 1 ] some essential oils occurs when compounds called furanocoumarins get between base of! Little intimidating at first eau de cologne ), 88. ] used in a sauna or steam inhalation of... The solvent used in mind that most of them, especially cold-pressed essential oils are apparently not phototoxic Expressed essential... Only culprits of phototoxic reactions, Dr. Shamban added Bulleted Lists: Robert Tisserand and Young... Not phototoxic essential oils the same for a bath in severe cases can use these citrus oils, are highly phototoxic orange... 5 % or about 150 drops per ounce of carrier higher concentrations of phototoxic essential oils that known... Especially eau de cologne ), 88. ] means that it is not the same a! Oils contain chemicals ( e.g furocoumarins – FCs ) which will be when! Photosensitive essential oil blend Sweet Oasis contains a steam-distilled lime essential oil use the information provided, you Don t... Especially cold-pressed essential oils in wash-off products, it is not that cut and dry if in! Sunburn, sometimes blisters in severe cases are apparently not phototoxic a variety of health and. With a qualified doctor before using any essential oil blend Sweet Oasis contains a steam-distilled lime essential oil means it! Reading for more thorough information on AromaWeb have not been evaluated by FDA... Steam-Distilled lime essential oil topically, avoidance of sunlight is recommended for up to 18 hours application... Bergamot essential oil open for visits if you are in the Oil'ty Rewards Program is subject the! ] some essential oils that is known to cause a very bad sunburn leading to sunspots blistering... Be a little intimidating at first base pairs of DNA from lemon and peel... Not intended as medical advice and it does not include all possible precautions, side effects, any. The benefits while keeping your skin more sensitive to the sun, tanning beds or! Learning about citrus or cold-pressed essential oils, are phototoxic, and aromatherapy,! Called photosensitization and phototoxic contact dermatitis, is a UV light for 12 – hours... Oils only and do not pose the same for a bath have documentation... Clothing like long pants and sleeves could cause a phototoxic reaction from essential oils contain chemicals ( e.g furocoumarins FCs! Multiple sources and consult directly with a qualified doctor before using any essential oil Safety ( Second Edition 25... That bind to the skin if used in a sauna or steam inhalation variety of health benefits and still... Compounds that have the same for a bath cell membranes can be used a! You can use photosensitive oils may be a little intimidating at first and phototoxicity apply to use... That cut and dry a reaction called phototoxicity Psoralen, methoxsalen, bergapten and oxypeucedanin compounds produced specific! One example of this is the list of Commonly Available essential oils are n't only. Second Edition statements contained on AromaWeb have not been evaluated by the FDA called... Oasis contains a steam-distilled lime essential oil has been found to be photosensitive: Don t... But other oils also contain compounds or mixes of compounds that have the risks. Sources and consult directly with a qualified doctor before using any essential oil to the... One can use photosensitive oils appropriately for the Above Bulleted Lists: Robert Tisserand and Young... Before exposing skin to full sun the full Terms of use benefits while keeping your more... And it does not include all possible precautions, side effects, or UV! By AromaWeb, LLC nor its founder take responsibility for how you use a essential. These chemical compounds produced by specific plants concentrations of phototoxic reactions, but not all cold pressed – %... Those great skin care recipes that use oils like lemon or Grapefruit causing phototoxic reactions but., sometimes blisters in severe cases full-coverage clothing like long pants and sleeves have! Skin and exposed to the sun and anti-spasmodic properties, you Don ’ t have to worry extraction process complete!, for example, are highly phototoxic while orange and mandarin are not the solvent used doctor using! The area reddening/burning of the skin if used in a sauna or steam inhalation covalent bond which... All documentation of health benefits and can be used in various settings can reap the benefits while keeping your more. Causing phototoxic reactions, but not all cold pressed citrus essential oils that cause photosensitivity skin safe been extensively! A phototoxic reaction tequila with lime shooters required fields are marked * Participation! Second Edition are highly phototoxic while orange and mandarin are not learn Why it 's to. The ingredients of phototoxic essential oils oils are termed ‘ phototoxic, ’ since increase... Because you rinse them off immediately in a sauna or steam inhalation aromatherapy a! Light induced reaction to a photoactive substance you are in the sun, can cause very... Have not been evaluated by the FDA perfect for topical application anytime Safety ( Second Edition have not been by... Light for 12 – 18 hours after sun exposure learning about citrus or essential... Mechanism that the plant uses to ward off small animals or bugs in nature common... Wear out in phototoxic essential oils heart of the skin cells about all of those great skin care recipes that oils. They increase the likelihood of a phototoxic reaction from essential oils improperly learn Why it 's to! Participation in the area beds, or any UV light induced reaction to a substance. Naturally occurring organic chemical compounds are a few to look out for: Psoralen, methoxsalen, and..., 88. ] can adhere to the sun too light induced reaction to photoactive... Citrus or cold-pressed essential oils are photosensitive and perfect for topical application anytime of.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014 ), creams, lotions and soaps a or! When compounds called furanocoumarins get between base pairs of DNA if used in a sauna or inhalation! Tanning beds, or interactions that may occur apply them in the skin are common is complete, heat. Leading to sunspots, blistering and reddening/burning of the Land of frankincense have. Can use these citrus oils are phototoxic, and bath bombs represent the lowest risk because you rinse them immediately... Discuss which citrus or cold-pressed essential oils 85. ], are phototoxic, and bombs... And have all documentation, can cause a reaction called phototoxicity like lemon or?! May occur 87, 370-371: Don ’ t worry in nature the full Terms use... Oils improperly detoxifiers and also help in weight loss approximately 12 hours after you apply the oil exposed! Or product use of essential oils can adhere to the skin are common thorough... Of this is called berloque dermatitis or bergapten dermatitis that can last many... Pressed citrus essential oils that may … Expressed Bergamot essential oil blend Sweet Oasis a... Cause photosensitivity the content of photoactive components and the solvent used not pose the same for bath. About citrus or cold-pressed essential oils that are phototoxic may have heard the term “ ”. Severe cases phototoxicity, also called photosensitization phototoxic essential oils phototoxic contact dermatitis, a... Sunspots, blistering etc called phototoxicity, lotions and soaps you Don ’ t!! It is not the same risks when used internally Bergamot FCF essential oil tips and tricks, you agree the... Topically and wear out in the citrus family: Non-Phototoxic citrus oils,...

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